Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of recurrent ear infections in children
Next to the common cold, ear infections are the most commonly diagnosed childhood illness with nearly 75% of children affected by three years of age. Current pediatric guidelines suggest that children under two years of age experiencing an acute ear infection should receive antibiotic therapy.
In a recent study published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, researchers conducted a randomized study of 116 children with an average age of 34 months that were experiencing recurrent acute otitis media (AOM), also known as a middle ear infection. Recurrent disease was defined as three or more episodes in the six months prior to the study, or four or more episodes in the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of children had been breastfed for three months or more, and all had been vaccinated with the influenza vaccine, and most had received the other standard childhood vaccinations.
Children were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of 1,000 IU of vitamin D or placebo for four months, and episodes of acute otitis media were monitored for six months.
At six-month follow-up, serum vitamin D was significantly higher in those treated with supplements versus placebo (36.2 ng/mL versus 18.7 ng/mL, P<0.001). When compared to placebo, children who received the 1,000 IU of vitamin D had a significantly lower risk of experiencing one or more episodes of AOM (26 incidents versus 38), and the overall risk of uncomplicated AOM was significantly smaller in the Vitamin D group.
The results of this study suggest that vitamin D levels should be checked in children with recurrent AOM, and that those children with low serum vitamin D could benefit from supplemental vitamin D as an effective and additional treatment for their condition.
Marchisio P et al. Vitamin D Supplementation Reduces the Risk of Acute Otitis Media in Otitis-Prone Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 May 20. [Epub ahead of print]
Vitamins and Athletes
Which vitamins are essential for athletes and why?
In what dosages should athletes ingest vitamins?
Which vitamins if any have no value to athletes?
Where do you stand on the argument that all supplements have no value and that a balanced diet will achieve the same results?
Are specific vitamins specific to specific sports, such as running, swimming, cycling, etc.?
What is the risk posed to athletes who are not eating a balanced diet or not taking worthwhile supplements (legal vitamins)?
September 4, 2013
High-calorie breakfast improves weight loss results in overweight women
Very few studies have examined the potential association between timing of food intake and metabolic syndrome. In a new study published in the journal Obesity, researchers compared weight loss from two diets of 1,400 calories, one with the majority at breakfast and one with the majority of calories at dinner.
Overweight and obese women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two weight loss groups, a breakfast (BF) (700 calorie breakfast, 500 calorie lunch, 200 calorie dinner) or a dinner (D) group (200 calorie breakfast, 500 calorie lunch, 700 calorie dinner). The diets were conducted for 12 weeks.
The high calorie breakfast resulted in greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Fasting glucose, insulin and ghrelin (a hunger hormone) were reduced in both groups, but fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR (a measurement of insulin resistance) were decreased to a significantly greater extent in the high calorie breakfast group. Average triglyceride levels decreased by 33.6% in the breakfast group, but increased by over 14% in the dinner group. Results from an oral glucose tolerance test, and the overall daily glucose, insulin, ghrelin and hunger scores were significantly better in the breakfast group. The breakfast group also reported a higher average satiety score than the dinner group.
Based on the results of this study, a high-calorie breakfast with reduced intake at dinner may be beneficial for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese individuals.
Jakubowicz, D., Barnea, M., Wainstein, J. and Froy, O. High Caloric intake at breakfast vs. dinner differentially influences weight loss of overweight and obese women. Obesity 2013 Mar 20. doi: 10.1002/oby.20460